Georges Limbour/Soleils bas
Les forteresses des Karpathes
étaient de grands châteaux de pâte.
Les princesses y étaient de sprectres oppressées
mais qui étaient là-haut la ronde de nos pensées.
A cause d’un Seigneur aux épais favoris
nous rêvions la beauté fragile et sans patrie
et cette voix bourrue d’un bourreau podestat
fit cette mélodie qui tout bas nous hanta.
Mais les Karpathes étaient courbes comme faucille
et dans la nuit leur ombre lentement s’avançait
pour faucher dans la plaine barrée de longs fossés
nos cœurs qui avaient osé
contmplet presque à leur hauteur ses forts branlants
par le regard oblique de leurs maints cerfs-volants.
(Gallimard, 1972, 1930)
Georges Limbour was an early ‘adopter’ of Surrealist poetry and prose, shortly after World War I.
He was a member of the Surrealist Movement in Paris during the 1920s, but was expelled in 1929. Before his association with André Breton and the Surrealists, Limbour co-edited, along with Roger Vitrac and René Crevel, the avant-garde review Aventure (1921–22). Later, he contributed to Georges Bataille’s journal Documents (1929–30), and, with a number of other dissident ex-surrealists, signed the anti-Breton pamphlet Un Cadavre.
This pamphlet was arranged by a number of disaffected surrealists, sharply criticizing the movement’s leader, André Breton, in response to criticism Breton made in his Second Surrealist Manifesto. The manifesto, published in December 1929, directly criticized certain members of the movement and attempted to set the course for future group activities.
The Second Manifesto attacked individuals who were already moving away from Breton, and can be regarded both as his way of formalizing the break and attacking Georges Bataille, who he feared was starting an anti-surrealist movement. The pamphlet Un Cadavre contained short essays by a number of those Breton criticized, many of whom he had formally expelled from the movement for reasons seemingly contrary to its goals, which in hindsight appear to be more a result of his famously imperious pride. For example, according to the Second Manifesto, the prose writer Georges Limbour was expelled for “literary coquetry in the worst sense of the word,” a reason that emphasizes Breton’s rigid disdain for literature, as opposed to poetry. Another major reason for division in the group was its increasingly politicized position, which tended toward Marxism.